Estimating the above-ground biomass of mangrove forests in Kenya
Robust estimates of forest above-ground biomass (AGB) are needed in order to constrain the uncertainty in regional and global carbon budgets, predictions of global climate change and remote sensing efforts to monitor large scale changes in forest cover and biomass. Estimates of AGB and their associated uncertainty are also essential for international forest-based climate change mitigation strategies such as REDD+. Mangrove forests are widely recognised as globally important carbon stores. Continuing high rates of global mangrove deforestation represent a loss of future carbon sequestration potential and could result in significant release into the atmosphere of the carbon currently being stored within mangroves. The main aims of this thesis are 1) to provide information on the current AGB stocks of mangrove forests in Kenya at spatial scales relevant for climate change research, forest management and REDD+ and 2) to evaluate and constrain the uncertainty associated with these AGB estimates. This thesis adopted both a ground-based statistical approach and a remote sensing based approach to estimating mangrove AGB in Kenya. Allometric equations were developed for Kenyan mangroves using mixed-effects regression analysis and uncertainties were fully propagated (using a Monte Carlo based approach) to estimates of AGB at all spatial scales (tree, plot, region and landscape). In this study, species and site effects accounted for a large proportion (41%) of the total variability in mangrove AGB. The generic biomass equation produced for Kenyan mangroves has the potential for broad application as it can be used to estimate the AGB of new trees where there is no pre-existing knowledge of the specific species-site allometric relationship. The 95% prediction intervals for landscape scale estimates of total AGB suggest that between 5.4 and 7.2 megatonnes (Mt) of AGB is currently held in Kenyan mangrove forests. An in-depth evaluation of the relative contribution of various components of uncertainty (measurement, parameter and residual uncertainty) to the magnitude of the total uncertainty of AGB estimates was carried out. This evaluation was undertaken using both the mixed-effects regression model and a standard ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The exclusion of measurement uncertainty during the biomass estimation process had negligible impact on the magnitude of the uncertainty regardless of spatial scale or tree size. Excluding the uncertainty due to species and site effects (from the mixed-effects model) consistently resulted in a large reduction (~ 70%) in the overall uncertainty. Estimates of the uncertainty produced by the OLS model were unrealistically low which is illustrative of the general need to account for group effects in biomass regression models. L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was used to estimate the AGB of Kenyan mangroves. There was an observable relationship (R2 = 0.45) between L-band HH and AGB with HH backscatter found to decrease as a function of increasing AGB. There was no significant relationship found between L-band HV and AGB. The negative relationship between HH and AGB in this study can possibly be attributed to enhanced backscatter at lower AGB due to strong double-bounce and direct surface scattering from short stature/open forests and attenuation of the SAR signal at higher AGB. The SAR-derived estimate of total AGB for Kenyan mangroves was 5.32 Mt ± 18.6%. However, due to the unexpected nature of the HH-AGB relationship found in this study the SAR-derived estimates of mangrove AGB in this study should be considered with caution.