Energy-efficient LTE transmission techniques : introducing Green Radio from resource allocation perspective
Energy consumption has recently become a key issue from both environmental and economic considerations. A typical mobile phone network in the UK may consume approximately 40- 50 MW, contributing a significant proportion of the total energy consumed by the information technology industry. With the worldwide growth in the number of mobile subscribers, the associated carbon emissions and growing energy costs are becoming a significant operational expense, leading to the need for energy reduction. The Mobile VCE Green Radio Project has been launched, which targets to achieve 100x energy reduction of the current wireless networks by 2020. In this thesis, energy-efficient resource allocation strategies have been investigated taking the LTE system as an example. Firstly, theoretical analysis of energy-efficient design in cellular environments is provided according to the Shannon Theory. Based on a two-link scenario the performance of simultaneous transmission and orthogonal transmission for network power minimization under the specified rate constraints is investigated. It is found that simultaneous transmission consumes less power than orthogonal transmission close to the base station, but much more power in the cell-edge area. Also, simulation results suggest that the energy-efficient switching margins between these two schemes are dominated by the sum total of their required data rates. New definitions of power-utility and fairness metrics are further proposed, following by the design of weighted resource allocation approaches based on efficiency-fairness trade-offs. Apart from energy-efficient multiple access between different links, the energy used by individual base stations can also be reduced. For example, deploying sleep modes is an effective approach to reduce radio base station operational energy consumption. By periodically switching off the base station transmission, or using fewer transmit antennas, the energy consumption of base station hardware may decrease. By delivering less control signalling overhead, the radio frequency energy consumption can also be reduced. Simulation results suggest that up to 90% energy reduction can be obtained in low traffic conditions by employing time-domain optimization in each radio frame. The optimum on/off duty cycle is derived, enabling the energy consumption of the base station to scale with traffic loads. In the spatial-domain, an antenna selection criterion is proposed, indicating the most energy-efficient antenna configuration with the knowledge of users’ locations and quality of service requirements. Without time-domain sleep modes, using fewer transmit antennas could outperform full antenna transmission. However, with time-domain sleep modes, using all available antennas is generally the most energy-efficient choice.