Dynamically reconfigurable asynchronous processor
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Fawaz, Khodor Ahmad
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The main design requirements for today's mobile applications are: · high throughput performance. · high energy efficiency. · high programmability. Until now, the choice of platform has often been limited to Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), due to their best-of-breed performance and power consumption. The economies of scale possible with these high-volume markets have traditionally been able to hide the high Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE) costs required for designing and fabricating new ASICs. However, with the NREs and design time escalating with each generation of mobile applications, this practice may be reaching its limit. Designers today are looking at programmable solutions, so that they can respond more rapidly to changes in the market and spread costs over several generations of mobile applications. However, there have been few feasible alternatives to ASICs: Digital Signals Processors (DSPs) and microprocessors cannot meet the throughput requirements, whereas Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) require too much area and power. Coarse-grained dynamically reconfigurable architectures offer better solutions for high throughput applications, when power and area considerations are taken into account. One promising example is the Reconfigurable Instruction Cell Array (RICA). RICA consists of an array of cells with an interconnect that can be dynamically reconfigured on every cycle. This allows quite complex datapaths to be rendered onto the fabric and executed in a single configuration - making these architectures particularly suitable to stream processing. Furthermore, RICA can be programmed from C, making it a good fit with existing design methodologies. However the RICA architecture has a drawback: poor scalability in terms of area and power. As the core gets bigger, the number of sequential elements in the array must be increased significantly to maintain the ability to achieve high throughputs through pipelining. As a result, a larger clock tree is required to synchronise the increased number of sequential elements. The clock tree therefore takes up a larger percentage of the area and power consumption of the core. This thesis presents a novel Dynamically Reconfigurable Asynchronous Processor (DRAP), aimed at high-throughput mobile applications. DRAP is based on the RICA architecture, but uses asynchronous design techniques - methods of designing digital systems without clocks. The absence of a global clock signal makes DRAP more scalable in terms of power and area overhead than its synchronous counterpart. The DRAP architecture maintains most of the benefits of custom asynchronous design, whilst also providing programmability via conventional high-level languages. Results show that the DRAP processor delivers considerably lower power consumption when compared to a market-leading Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) processor and a low-power ARM processor. For example, DRAP resulted in a reduction in power consumption of 20 times compared to the ARM7 processor, and 29 times compared to the TIC64x VLIW, when running the same benchmark capped to the same throughput and for the same process technology (0.13μm). When compared to an equivalent RICA design, DRAP was up to 22% larger than RICA but resulted in a power reduction of up to 1.9 times. It was also capable of achieving up to 2.8 times higher throughputs than RICA for the same benchmarks.