Genetic and functional analysis of topoisomerase II in vertebrates
MetadataShow full item record
The degree of DNA supercoiling in the cell is carefully controlled by DNA topoisomerases. These enzymes catalyze the passage of individual DNA strands (Type I DNA topoisomerases), or double helices (Type II DNA topoisomerases) through one another. The purpose of the present study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the topo llα and β mRNAs expressed in several vertebrate cell lines.The final aim of this project is to analyze the relative roles of topo llα in chromatin condensation and chromosome segregation during mitosis, by performing topo llα gene targeting experiments in the DT 40 chicken lymphoblastoid cell line. The knock-out strategy was based on the observation of a high rate of homologous recombination versus random integration in the DT40 cell line. The topo llα gene was shown to be located on the chicken chromosome 2 (APM unpublished), for which the DT40 cell line is trisomic. The targeting vector completely replaced the 32 kb topo IIα genomic locus, generating a topo llα (-/+/+)cell line, which showed an increased resistance to topo II inhibitors. Paradoxically, 150 uM etoposide or 100 uM mitoxanthrone induced apoptosis within 5 hours in the topo llα (-1+1+) cell line, more rapidly as compared to the normal DT 40 cells. A topo IIα (-I-I+) cell line has also been generated. This study revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved alternatively spliced forms of both topo llα and β isoforms between birds and humans. Hybridization screening of two chicken cDNA libraries, MSB-1 and DU249, revealed the presence of two distinct forms of both topo llα and β cDNAs. One form of topo llα, designated topo llα-1, encodes the chicken topo llα amino acid sequence previously reported (dbjiAB007445) in the database (unpublished). The second form, designated topo llα-2, encodes a protein containing an additional 35 amino acids inserted after Lysine-322 of chicken topo IIα-1 protein sequence. In the case of topo 11(3 mANA, one form, designated topo IIβ-1, encodes the protein already described (dbjiAB007446). The second form, tapa IIβ-2, would encode a protein missing the next 86 amino acids after Valine-25 in tapa II β-1 protein sequence. The tapa 11β variant is positioned similarly to one previously described in human (Hela) cells. The 5 amino acid insertion in the human tapa 11β-2 variant follows v23. In chicken cells, a longer insertion of 86 amino acids sequence follows v25, the homologous position in the tapa 11β protein. In human cells, the situation with tapa llα is more complex, as revealed by RT-PCR experiments (APM, unpublished) which generated several bands. One of these amplified species was found to contain a 36 amino acids insertion, positioned after residue K321 in the human tapa IIα cDNA, similarly to chicken tapa IIα-2 variant. The second human tapa llα spliced form cDNA was shown to contain a 26 amino acids insertion after residue A401 in the canonical human tapa llα protein sequence. The third cDNA variant isolated from human cells was described to encode a 81 amino acids insertion after residue Q355 positioned within the known human tapa IIα protein. It appears possible that the posttranslational modifications of the a-2 and β-2 isoforms may differ substantially from those of the canonical a-1 and β-1 isoforms. Such variant proteins could fulfil specialized functions, which might be tissue or cell-type specific. In summary, two novel forms of tapa llα and β cDNAs have been identified in three chicken cell lines. These spliced versions of both tapa llα and 13 isoforms seem to be evolutionary conserved, with similar forms occurring in their human counterparts. Future functional analysis of vertebrate tapa IIα and β will have to account for the existence of these novel isoforms, which might encode proteins that may exhibit different regulation of their subcellular localization, interaction with other proteins, or catalytic activity.