Characterization of CTX-M β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae from major teaching hospitals
Alqurashi, Maher Sulaiman M.
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Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae cause a wide range of infections. Multidrug-resistance strains carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has become a growing problem worldwide. The CTX-M type ESBLs has emerged distinctly, especially in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. CTX-M type has been associated with many outbreaks of infections both in the hospitals and community. CTX-M-15 is now identified as the most predominantly distributed CTX-M enzyme. Clonal outbreaks of CTX-M-15 producing Enterobacteriaceae have been described in many countries including the United Kingdom, and Escherichia coli is the most commonly involved species. A total of 100 isolates were received in 2010 from London St George’s hospital, England, 50 Escherichia coli, 17 Klebsiella spp, 9 Enterobacter spp, 13 Proteus spp, 6 Lactose fermenting coliforms, 2 Pantoea spp, one Serratia marcescens, one Morganella morganii, and one Hafnia alvei. The antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that 5 Escherichia coli and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were found to be resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, making them multi-drug resistant bacteria. None of the isolates showed resistance to imipenem, ertapenem, or morepenem, thus making carbapenems the drug of choice for the treatment of these infections due to multi-resistant isolates. The overall frequency of CTX-M-15 type ESBL-producers detected in this study was 6 (6%) most of them 5/6 (83%) were from Escherichia coli and one was (17%) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. The 6 CTX-M-positive isolates were typed by PFGE, only two strains of Escherichia coli showed more than 85% similarity, owing to clonal homology for both strains. The rest strains showed less than 85% similarity. S1 nuclease plasmid profiles were obtained for ESBL-producers isolates. A total of one to three plasmids per isolate, ranging from approximately 78.0 to 152.0 kb, were observed. The plasmids from most isolates were assigned to be IncFA and IncFB replicons. Analysis of phylogenetic groups showed group A and group B2. The method of phylogenetic classification of exteraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli depends on examine and combination of two preserved genes (chuaA and yjaA) and the DNA fragment TSP. Primer walking and PCR experiments were used for the genetic environment studies which showed 5 different genetic constructions for the described blaCTX-M-15 genes. Conjugation studies were used to detect the transferability of the plasmids harbouring the reported blaCTX-M-15 genes. Three isolates were found transferable by conjugation. In conclusion, this study reports the presence of hospital highly resistant blaCTX-M-15 in St George’s hospital. The spread of blaCTX-M-15 is probably due to horizontal gene transfer harbouring ISEcp1 and the conjugative properties of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-15.