Physicochemical and crystallographic investigations into the salt formation of two heterocyclic drugs
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Salt formation provides a means of altering the physicochemical and resultant biological characteristics of a drug entity without modifying its molecular structure. Many published reviews have indicated the importance of the selection of the most appropriate salt form. This work is an investigation into the salt formation of two heterocyclic drugs. This is done by the physicochemical and the crystallographic studies of 19 high resolution single crystal diffraction studies. The particular targets of the work are the selection of the most appropriate salt forms, investigations into the tautomerism and polymorphism (or pseudopolymorphism) and an understanding of the interactions most likely between these heterocyclic drugs and their specific receptor sites. Section 1 describes the effect of protonation on the absorption of drugs, the rationale for using various salt forms and the resultant effect this has on a number of physicochemical properties of the parent compound. Section 2 is a description of the experimental techniques used in the physicochemical investigations and in crystal structure determination. In Sections 3 and 7, the preparation and characterisation of the salts and modifications of the two heterocyclic drugs, GU and IM is described. In Sections 4 and 8, the physicochemical investigations into the hygroscopicity and solid-state stabilities of the salts of GU and IM is described. Van't Hoff solubility studies are used to determine the enthalpies of solution and where appropriate the relative thermodynamic stabilities of the various phases produced. The structures of 19 of the salts or modifications of GU and IM, together with their packing and hydrogen bonding interactions is described in Sections 5 and 9. Sections 6 and 10 describe the ionisation properties of these molecules. Both the guanidine and imidazole moieties of GU and IM, respectively, are tautomeric, the particular form(s) found in these investigations and the effect of protonation is discussed. The conformations of these structures are discussed and the effect of protonation, especially on the puckering of the piperazine ring, is described.