MacIntyre, H. R.
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Actinomycosis is generally looked upon as a rare disease, but, in the experience of many who are constantly on the look out for this condition, this would appear to be by no means the case. It seems probable that many are mistaken for another of the infective granuloata, namely - Tuberculosis - which this disease resembles in many respects; or again for malignant disease. Early writers described conditions which were identical with actinomycosis, but classed them as Tuberculous or Cancerous affection. In France in 1826, Leblanc described a disease in cattle characterised by swelling of the jaw. In England in 1833, Professor Dick described a condition of swelling of the jaws in cattle called "clyers"; and, in 1841, stated that the disease was known to affect man in the jaw. In 1845 Langenbeck reported a case of vertebral caries, with yellow grains in the pus. In 1850, Davaine described a case of tumour of the jaw in an ox, in the discharge from which there were yellow granules, which under the microscope had neither the characters of tubercle nor of pus. In 1868, Rivolta discovered rod shaped bodies in pus from tumours of jaws of oxen, which rods he compared to rods of the retina. He attepted innoculation, but failed. Bollinger, in 1878, proved that the granules from the tumours of jaws of oxen had a casual relation to the disease: these same granules were examined by Harz, the botanist of Munich, who recognised their parasitic nature, and gave the name "Actinomycosis Bovis". Israel, in 1878, published in "Virchow's Archives" two cases of Mycosis in man, describing and making drawings of the fungus. In 1879, Ponfick suggested the identity of the disease in man and the lower animals. Then Johne succeeded in producing the disease in the ox by inoculation.