Fire resistance of earthquake damaged reinforced concrete frames
Ab. Kadir, Mariyana Aida
Kadir, Mariyana Aida
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The topic of structural damage caused by fires following an earthquake (FFE) has been discussed extensively by many researchers for over a decade in order to bring the two fields closer together in the context of performance based structural engineering. Edinburgh University, Heriot-Watt University, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT Roorkee) and Indian Institute of Science initiated a collaboration to study this problem under a UK-India Engineering Research Initiative (UKIERI) funded project. The first construction of a single-storey reinforced concrete frame at IIT Roorkee was completed in summer 2011; this is known as the Roorkee Frame Test 1 throughout this thesis. This thesis presents the modelling of the Roorkee Frame Test 1 using the finite element method and assesses the capability of the numerical methodologies for analysing these two sequential events. Both two and three dimensional finite element models were developed. Beam and shell elements were chosen for the numerical modelling, which was carried out using the general purpose finite element package ABAQUS (version 6.8). The variation in material properties caused by these two types of loading, including strength and stiffness degradation, compressive hardening, tension stiffening, and thermal properties, is implemented in the numerical modelling. Constitutive material calculations are in accordance with EC4 Part 1.1, and all loading is according to IS 1893:2002 Part 1 (Indian Standard). The time-temperature curve used in the analysis is based on data from the test carried out. The behaviour of the Roorkee Frame Test 1 when subjected to monotonic, cyclic lateral loading followed by fire is presented. The capacity of the frame when subjected to lateral loading is examined using a static non-linear pushover method. Incremental lateral loading is applied in a displacement-controlled manner to induce simulated seismic damage in the frame. The capacity curve, hysteresis loops and residual displacements are presented, discussed and compared with the test results. The heat transfer analysis using three dimensional solid elements was also compared against temperature distributions recorded during the Roorkee frame fire test. Based on the smoke layer theory, two emissivity values were defined. In this study, the suitability of numerical modelling using ABAQUS to capture the behaviour of Roorkee frame test is examined. The results from this study show that the 3D ABAQUS model predicted more reliable hysteresis curves compared to the 2D ABAQUS model, but both models estimated the lateral load capacity well. However neither model was able to simulate the pinching effect clearly visible in the hysteresis curves from the test. This was due to noninclusion of the bond slip effect between reinforcing bars and concrete. The residual displacement obtained at the end of the cyclic lateral loading analysis from the 2D ABAQUS model is higher than that seen in the test. However, the result in the 3D ABAQUS model matched the trend obtained in the test. The both columns appear to stiffen under the heating and the residual displacement seems to recover slightly. Lateral displacements, obtained in the thermo-mechanical analysis of the numerical models, show that thermal expansion brings the frame back towards its initial position. Finally, correlation studies between analytical and experimental results are conducted with the objective to establish the validity of the proposed model and identify the significance of various effects on the local and global response of fire resistance earthquake damaged of reinforced concrete frames. These studies show that the effect of tension stiffening and bond-slip are very important and should always be included in finite element models of the response of reinforced concrete frame with the smeared crack model when subjected to lateral and thermal loading. The behaviour of reinforced concrete frames exposed to fire is usually described in terms of the concept of the fire resistance which defined in terms of displacement limit. This study shows the global displacement of the frame subjected to fire recover slightly due to the thermal expansion during the heating.