Interference management in wireless cellular networks
Burchardt, Harald Peter
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In wireless networks, there is an ever-increasing demand for higher system throughputs, along with growing expectation for all users to be available to multimedia and Internet services. This is especially difficult to maintain at the cell-edge. Therefore, a key challenge for future orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based networks is inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC). With full frequency reuse, small inter-site distances (ISDs), and heterogeneous architectures, coping with co-channel interference (CCI) in such networks has become paramount. Further, the needs for more energy efficient, or “green,” technologies is growing. In this light, Uplink Interference Protection (ULIP), a technique to combat CCI via power reduction, is investigated. By reducing the transmit power on a subset of resource blocks (RBs), the uplink interference to neighbouring cells can be controlled. Utilisation of existing reference signals limits additional signalling. Furthermore, cell-edge performance can be significantly improved through a priority class scheduler, enhancing the throughput fairness of the system. Finally, analytic derivations reveal ULIP guarantees enhanced energy efficiency for all mobile stations (MSs), with the added benefit that overall system throughput gains are also achievable. Following this, a novel scheduler that enhances both network spectral and energy efficiency is proposed. In order to facilitate the application of Pareto optimal power control (POPC) in cellular networks, a simple feasibility condition based on path gains and signal-to-noise-plus- interference ratio (SINR) targets is derived. Power Control Scheduling (PCS) maximises the number of concurrently transmitting MSs and minimises their transmit powers. In addition, cell/link removal is extended to OFDMA operation. Subsequently, an SINR variation technique, Power SINR Scheduling (PSS), is employed in femto-cell networks where full bandwidth users prohibit orthogonal resource allocation. Extensive simulation results show substantial gains in system throughput and energy efficiency over conventional power control schemes. Finally, the evolution of future systems to heterogeneous networks (HetNets), and the consequently enhanced network management difficulties necessitate the need for a distributed and autonomous ICIC approach. Using a fuzzy logic system, locally available information is utilised to allocate time-frequency resources and transmit powers such that requested rates are satisfied. An empirical investigation indicates close-to-optimal system performance at significantly reduced complexity (and signalling). Additionally, base station (BS) reference signals are appropriated to provide autonomous cell association amongst multiple co-located BSs. Detailed analytical signal modelling of the femto-cell and macro/pico-cell layouts reveal high correlation to experimentally gathered statistics. Further, superior performance to benchmarks in terms of system throughput, energy efficiency, availability and fairness indicate enormous potential for future wireless networks.