Distributed generation and demand side management : applications to transmission system operation
Hayes, Barry Patrick
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Electricity networks are undergoing a period of rapid change and transformation, with increased penetration levels of renewable-based distributed generation, and new influences on electricity end-use patterns from demand-manageable loads and micro-generation. This creates a number of new challenges for the delivery of a reliable supply of electrical energy. The main aim of this PhD research is to provide a methodology for a more detailed and accurate assessment of the effects of wind-based distributed generation (DG) and demand side management (DSM) on transmission network operation. In addition, the work investigates the potential for co-ordinated implementation and control of DG and DSM to improve overall system performance. A significant amount of previous literature on network integration of DG and DSM resources has focused on the effects at the distribution level, where their impact is direct and often easily observed. However, as penetration levels increase, DG and DSM will have a growing influence on the operation and management of the bulk transmission system. Modelling and analysis of the impact of embedded and highly-dispersed DG and DSM resources at transmission voltage levels will present a significant challenge for transmission network operators in the future. Accordingly, this thesis presents a number of new approaches and methodologies allowing for a more accurate modelling and aggregation of DG and DSM resources in power system studies. The correct representation of input wind energy resources is essential for accurate estimation of power and energy outputs of wind-based DG. A novel modelling approach for a simple and accurate representation of the statistical and temporal characteristics of the wind energy resources is presented in the thesis. An "all-scale" approach to modelling and aggregation of wind-based generation is proposed, which is specifically intended for assessing the impact of embedded wind generation on the steady state performance of transmission systems. The methodology allows to include in the analysis wind-based generation at all scales and all levels of implementation, from micro and small LV-connected units, through medium-size wind plants connected at MV, up to large HV-connected wind farms. The thesis also presents an assessment of the potential for DSM in the UK residential and commercial sectors, based on the analysis and decomposition of measured demands at system bulk supply points into the corresponding load types. Using a section of the Scottish transmission network as a case study, a number of DG and DSM scenarios are investigated in detail. These results demonstrate the importance of accurately modelling the interactions between the supply system and various DG and DSM schemes, and show that the aggregated effects of highly-distributed DG and DSM resources can have significant impacts on the operation of the bulk transmission system.