Molecular diversity and genetic organization of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella species
Younes, Abd El-Gayed Metwaly
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Klebsiella spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause hospital and community acquired infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, septicaemia, soft tissue infections, liver abscess, and meningitis. Multidrug-resistant strains possessing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has become an increasing problem worldwide. The over use and, in some cases, misuse of antibiotics in humans and in animal husbandry has been cited as a responsible factor in the development of drug resistance in all bacterial species. The advancing age; female gender, hospital crossinfection, the food chain trade and human migrations have contributed to increase the risk for community-acquired ESBL. A total of 223 isolates collected in 2006 and 2007 at Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland, 219 K. pneumoniae, 2 K. oxytoca, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, and one isolate Salmonella enterica were identified by API 20E and confirmed genotypically with gyrA PCR-RFLP method. The antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that 34 (15.2%), 36 (16.1%), 35 (15.7%), 45 (20.2%), 30 (13.5%) and 55 (24.7%) of these strains were found to be resistant to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, naladixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin. None of the isolates were found resistant to meropenem keeping carbapenems the drug of choice for the treatment of multiresistant isolates. The overall frequency of ESBL producers observed in this study was 35 (15.7%) most of them 32/35 (91.4%) were from K. pneumoniae. The genetic analysis showed that SHV β-lactamases were detected in 32, whereas TEM and CTX-M were detected in 24 and 16 respectively. From the ESBL-producing isolates, molecular methods identified nine strains possessing ESBL-SHV genes (1 strain blaSHV-5, 1 strain blaSHV-80 and 8 strains blaSHV-12), whereas the remaining were from the “non-ESBL” producing strains. Conjugation methods demonstrated that 29/32 isolates harboured transferable blaSHV genes. The large SHV transposon-borne promoters were amplified from only one non-transferable blaSHV-11, 15 isolates produced the small SHV transposon-borne promoters. Furthermore, the IS26 was found 73bp upstream of the blaSHV gene in all small SHV transposon-borne promoters. A new blaLEN gene was identified from K. pneumoniae (KpII) phylogenetic group but remained susceptible to all cephalosporins. Sixteen (7.3%) of K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be producers of the CTX-M- 15 ESBL, of which two isolates (12.5%) were reported to be from communityacquired infections. The insertion sequence ISEcp1 was detected by sequencing 48 nucleotides upstream of blaCTX-M-15 in all isolates but one. Five different clones of CTX-M-15-producing isolates were identified by PFGE. The findings indicated a higher prevalence of qnr genes than in previous studies but still low in general. By PCR, 18 (8%) (11 qnrB1, 2 qnrB6 and 5 qnrA1) genes were identified from K. pneumoniae isolates. Also, the findings indicated the frequent coexpression of fluoroquinolones and ESBLs resistance in the same isolate. Two K. oxytoca strains were isolated from urine and blood specimens of hospitalized patients. Both strains were positive for the blaOXY-2 gene. One strain showed resistance to pencillins, monbactams, cephalosporins including cefotaxime and ceftazidime but was not inhibited by clavulanic acid. It differed by an amino acid substitution Ala237→Thr, which enhances the binding of cefotaxime. S1-nuclease plasmid profiles were obtained for some isolates. A total of one to two plasmids, ranging in size from approximately 40 to 210 kb, were observed per strain. The plasmids from 24 ESBL K. pneumoniae strains were assigned to be IncN or IncFII replicons. Analysis of phylogenetic groups showed that the majority of K. pneumoniae isolates were belonged to KpI-type. Both K. oxytoca strains were assigned to be KoII phylogenetic group based on rpoB and gyrA sequencing. Integrons are capable of capturing and mobilizing genes called gene cassettes which play an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance through horizontal transmission. In fact, the present study indicated a high frequency of occurrence of class 1 integrons among ESBL-positive K pneumoniae. Three isolates positive for class 1 integrons were found positive for class 2 integrons as well. Class 1 integrons including dfr, aadA and ereA2 gene cassettes have been identified by sequencing, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, streptomycin/spectinomycin and erythromycin respectively. In conclusion, the results from this thesis report the emergence of hospital and community-acquired highly resistant CTX-15 β-lactamase in the Edinburgh, Scotland. The prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates in Scotland is still much lower than in many other European countries. The dissemination of SHV- and TEM- β- lactamase types in this study is more predominate than CTX-M-15.