Investigation into genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) in murine norovirus and other positive-stranded RNA viruses
Blundell, Richard James
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Genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) was first identified in 2004. It refers to the presence of secondary structure throughout the length of the RNA genomes of certain genera of RNA virus families, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. It was also observed that the viruses containing GORS were able to establish persistent infections in their natural hosts, raising the possibility that the presence of GORS could play a role in viral avoidance of the innate immune system. This thesis describes the first study of GORS and its possible role in persistence. Two GORS viruses have been studied, equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and murine norovirus (MNV). A 55% seroprevalence of ERAV has been determined in a cohort of Scottish horses indicating a wide exposure to the virus. Equine faecal samples were screened for ERAV by PCR with the intention of identifying a virus, possibly from a persistently infected animal, which would not have undergone any cell culture adaptations as laboratory strains have. Newly identified viruses would then be sequenced, their secondary structures predicted and further studies carried out. Unfortunately, none of the 50 faecal samples screened were positive and clinical isolates of ERAV provided by the Animal Health Trust were sequenced but were identical to laboratory strains, so the study then focussed on MNV. Prevalence of MNV in laboratory mice was determined by PCR of faecal samples to be 67%. MNV was also discovered in the faeces of a pet shop mouse and a wild wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). The complete genomes of 4 laboratory mouse MNVs, the pet shop mouse and wood mouse MNVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed the wood mouse MNV had a p distance of 23% from other MNVs, although the laboratory mice and pet shop mouse were closely related to other MNVs. Structural analysis of the genomes of 6 sequenced MNVs, including the wood mouse virus, showed all were GORS viruses. A laboratory strain of MNV, MNV-3, was serially passaged in RAW 264.7 cells to test the hypothesis that in an animal with an intact immune system, there is a pressure for GORS viruses to maintain their genomic RNA structure as a means of immune avoidance, and that cell culture adaptation would attenuate the degree of secondary structure. The complete genome of passage 33 was sequenced, which revealed 7 base mutations, a mutation rate of 0.1 %, which was not considered significant enough to have affected the degree of secondary structure. In order to assess if structured and unstructured RNA behaved differently in cells, replication deficient RNA transcripts were made from the infectious clones of a panel of GORS and non-GORS viruses. These transcripts were electroporated into cells and their rate of decay measured, but there was no difference between the GORS and non-GORS transcripts. The full length and 4 kilobase transcripts were transfected into NIH3T3 cells and the degree of interferon-β induction measured by quantitative PCR and a luciferase reporter assay. The IFN-β response differed across the panel of viruses, and although none of the GORS viruses induced strongly, the non-GORS viruses were variable in their ability to induce an IFN-β response, some inducing strongly, other not at all. This result indicates that during exposure of viral genomes in the cytoplasm during infection, GORS-virus RNAs are unlikely to induce an interferon response, possibly contributing to their ability to persist. It is unclear why some non-GORS-viruses failed to induce IFN and there are likely to be other contributory factors.