Natural antimicrobials in pregnancy
Stock, Sarah J.E.
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Natural antimicrobials are peptides that are essential components of the innate immune system, providing broad-spectrum protection against bacteria, yeasts and some viruses. In addition to their innate immune activity, they exhibit properties suggesting they interact with the adaptive immune system. These functions imply they may be of particular importance in pregnancy. Intrauterine infection is responsible for approximately one third of cases of preterm labour, and normal labour is considered an inflammatory process, associated with leukocyte invasion of the uterine tissues and increased cytokine production. Little is known, however, about natural antimicrobial expression in pregnant reproductive tract. The aim of this thesis was thus to characterize natural antimicrobial production in pregnancy. The study focused on two main areas - the lower genital tract, comprised of the vagina and cervix; and the innermost fetal membrane, the amnion. In the lower genital tract, levels of natural antimicrobials were determined in samples of cervicovaginal secretions collected from pregnant women, using enzyme linked immunosorbance assay (ELISA). In addition Taqman quantitative PCR and ELISAs were used to investigate natural antimicrobial production by cell lines derived from endocervical, ectocervical and vaginal epithelium. It was found that elafin and secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) were found at high concentrations in cervicovaginal secretions, but levels were diminished in women with the common vaginal infection bacterial vaginosis (p<0.05). Cells derived from the vaginal epithelium expressed greater amounts of elafin than cervically derived cells. However, elafin and SLPI production could be stimulated in endocervical cells by the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide, a response that was not seen in the vaginal cell line. Natural antimicrobial production in the amnion was examined in tissue explants and primary cultured amnion cells, using a combination of Taqman PCR and ELISAs. In addition, cDNA microarray was carried out to investigate factors controlling amniotic antimicrobial production, and the involvement of signalling pathways was studied using specific pathway inhibitors. It was shown that the amnion expressed five antimicrobials: human beta defensins (HBD) 1, 2 and 3, SLPI and elafin. Expression of HBD2 was significantly upregulated following normal labour (p<0.05), with production in primary amnion epithelial cells dramatically increased by IL-1ß. The pattern of HBD2 expression in response to IL-1ß was biphasic, which suggested involvement of a secondary gene product. Several putative influential factors were identified by cDNA micorarray, including the NF-kappaB cofactor NFkappaBinhibitorζ. Its relationship to HBD2 was explored. The involvement of both NF-kappaB and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 signalling appeared crucial in the response. This work has shown that natural antimicrobials are expressed by both the lower genital tract, where infections that are associated with preterm labour originate, and in the amnion, which is the fetus last line of defence to infection. They may have an important role in the prevention of infection associated preterm labour. Further characterization of these responses may increase understanding of the physiology, and pathophysiology of labour, and lead to strategies for the prevention of premature delivery.