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dc.contributor.authorRichards, B.S.
dc.contributor.authorCapão, D.P.S.
dc.contributor.authorSchäfer, Andrea
dc.date.accessioned2010-11-16T14:16:03Z
dc.date.available2010-11-16T14:16:03Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier.citationRichards, B.S. ; Capão, D. ; Schäfer, A.I. ; (2008) Renewable energy powered membrane technology 2 The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system, Environmental Science & Technology, 42(12); 4563-4569.en
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es703157n
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/4315
dc.description.abstractThis paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration – nanofiltration / reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarised using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS.cm-1, recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS.cm-1 conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh.m-3. The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500 – 1200 W.m-2), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was able to produce 1.36 m-3 and 0.85 m-3 of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Societyen
dc.subjectNanofiltrationen
dc.subjectreverse osmosisen
dc.subjectultrafiltrationen
dc.subjectSolar energyen
dc.titleRenewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane systemen
dc.typeArticleen


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