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|Title: ||Trace Contaminant Removal using Hybrid Membrane Processes in Water Recycling|
|Authors: ||Schäfer, Andrea|
|Issue Date: ||2002|
|Citation: ||Schäfer, A.I. ; Waite, T.D. (2002) Trace Contaminant Removal using Hybrid Membrane Processes in Water Recycling, in: Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment VII, H.H. Hahn, E. Hoffman, H. Ødegaard (Eds.), IWA Publishing, 10th Gothenburg Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 2002, 319-330.|
|Publisher: ||IWA Publishing|
|Abstract: ||Water recycling plays an essential role in integrated water management, especially in an arid country like Australia
but also worldwide . Water recycling, however, has suffered extensive constraints due to "toilet to tap" media
campaigns and "yuck factor" attitudes in the community. The support of the community for water recycling projects
generally decreases as the personal contact with the recycled water increases . Some of the very valid concerns of the
community stem from uncertainties involved in water recycling, such as the issue of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
potentially present in recycled waters or the ever growing group of endocrine disrupting chemicals have been of
particular concern to sections of the community.
Endocrine disrupters have the potential to interfere with our normal growth, development and reproduction.
Modulation of that system could cause severe adverse health effects. Industrial chemicals, consumer chemicals and
chemicals in the environment can be endocrine disrupters that mimic, enhance or inhibit the action of hormones [3, 4].
Sewage disposal to water sources may be a major exposure pathway for pharmaceuticals, synthetic and natural
hormones, industrial chemicals to humans and wildlife, directly and via the food chain. This concerns disposal of
treated effluents and applications of recycled water.
This paper aims to address some of the uncertainties and risks involved in recycling technology and aims to stress
caution and the need for well designed recycling projects. This risk expands to water treatment in situations where
contaminated waters are treated.|
|Keywords: ||water recycling|
|Appears in Collections:||Membrane Technology Research Group publications|
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