Analysis of Speaker Adaptation Algorithms for HMM-based Speech Synthesis and a Constrained SMAPLR Adaptation Algorithm
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
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In this paper we analyze the effects of several factors and configuration choices encountered during training and model construction when we want to obtain better and more stable adaptation in HMM-based speech synthesis. We then propose a new adaptation algorithm called constrained structural maximum a posteriori linear regression (CSMAPLR) whose derivation is based on the knowledge obtained in this analysis and on the results of comparing several conventional adaptation algorithms. Here we investigate six major aspects of the speaker adaptation: initial models transform functions, estimation criteria, and sensitivity of several linear regression adaptation algorithms algorithms. Analyzing the effect of the initial model, we compare speaker-dependent models, gender-independent models, and the simultaneous use of the gender-dependent models to single use of the gender-dependent models. Analyzing the effect of the transform functions, we compare the transform function for only mean vectors with that for mean vectors and covariance matrices. Analyzing the effect of the estimation criteria, we compare the ML criterion with a robust estimation criterion called structural MAP. We evaluate the sensitivity of several thresholds for the piecewise linear regression algorithms and take up methods combining MAP adaptation with the linear regression algorithms. We incorporate these adaptation algorithms into our speech synthesis system and present several subjective and objective evaluation results showing the utility and effectiveness of these algorithms in speaker adaptation for HMM-based speech synthesis.