Steady state load models for power system analysis
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The last full review of load models used for power system studies occurred in the 1980s. Since then, new types of loads have been introduced and system load mix has changed considerably. The examples of newly introduced loads include drive-controlled motors, low energy consumption light sources and other modern power electronic loads. Their numbers have been steadily increasing in recent years, a trend which is expected to escalate. Accordingly, the majority of load models used in traditional power system studies are becoming outdated, as they are unable to accurately represent power demand characteristics of existing and future loads. Therefore, in order to accurately predict both active and non-active power demand characteristics of aggregated modern power system loads in different load sectors (e.g. residential, commercial or industrial), existing load models should be updated and new models developed. This thesis aims to fill this gap by developing individual, generic and aggregated steady state models of the most common loads in use today, as well as of those expected to show significant growth in the future. The component-based approach is adopted for load modelling, where individual load models are obtained in detailed simulations of physical devices. Whenever possible, the developed individual load models are validated by measurements. These detailed individual load models are then simplified and expressed as equivalent circuit and analytical models, which allowed the establishment of generic load models that can be easily aggregated. It should be noted that since all non-active power characteristics are correctly represented, the developed aggregated load models allow for a full harmonic analysis, which is not the case with the standard steady state load models. Therefore, the proposed load models form an extensive library of comprehensive load models that are suitable for use in multiple areas of power system research. Based on the results of research related to typical domestic/residential sector load mix, the newly developed load models are aggregated and then applied to a typical UK/Scotland distribution network. Considerable differences are seen between network characteristics of newly proposed and previously developed models. The voltage distortion of a typical distribution system bus is investigated, and it is shown that distortion of the system voltage is likely to increase significantly in the future. The results of the presented research also suggest that neglecting the harmonic characteristics from the set of general load attributes may introduce errors in standard load flow studies.