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dc.contributor.authorMacneil, Florence E.en
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-15T14:34:38Z
dc.date.available2019-02-15T14:34:38Z
dc.date.issued1942en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/35093
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractWe started out in our investigation with the idea of making an attempt to combine qualitative and quantitative methods in assessing some traits of temperament. Many of the purely qualitative surveys have given most important and valuable information in this field, but their value is mainly clinical; without some sort of objective standard against which they can be measured, tile psychologist cannot safely generalise on the basis of qualitative information alone. But the psychometric procedure must not lead to psychologically meaningless abstractions. It is important that the rich complexity of human nature should not be split up and distorted into isolated statistical ciphers; and that broad quantitative generalisations should not be allowed . to obscure the individual personality Gestalt.en
dc.description.abstractFirst of all we made use of the questionnaire method in our preliminary experimentation, and concluded that only with reference to relatively 'non -affective' items, such as opinions and interests, do questionnaires elicit any sort of reliable information; and even with those, the subjects must be of good education. Unless utilised under personal interview conditions, questionnaires devised to obtain information of a more intimate nature, are likely only to measure what the individuals personally interpret as the meaning of the traits. The present writer is of the opinion that the questionnaire method should be scrapped in the meantime, except in so far as subjects are definitely asked to set down what they consider the meaning of such questions to be, and not to what extent they think the traits are characteristic oi themselves. In this way, we might possibly accumulate more evidence of certain "real" and fairly constant reactions.en
dc.description.abstractAs a result of watching the performance test behaviour of a girl suffering from high frequency deafness, the writer decided to use a battery of performance tests on a group of selected subjects to see if, on the basis of observation alone, and with as few a priori assumptions as possible, she could isolate some aspect of temperament while yet preserving its relation to the temperament "whole". In order, as it were, "to start with the sausage instead of the pig", she gave some performance tests and puzzles to a small group of highly intelligent, sophisticated adults to see what differences, if any, she could observe during their performance. Intellectually, their behaviour was all on the same high level, but different emotional reactions were revealed by means of the subjects' introspections, and above all there were well-marked differences in psycho-motor behaviour.en
dc.description.abstractA battery of performance tests was chosen, difficult enough (tneoretically) to reach adult level. A new performance test devised by the writer was included, fulfilling the criteria of both length and difficulty, and also designed to reveal (if possible) differences in 3- dimensional visual perception, in which point the investigator happened also to be interested.en
dc.description.abstractIn order to exercise some degree of control over intelligence (so that its influence in the temperament situation could to some extent be "known") the performance test battery was given to a group of subjects who were 13 years of age, and not yet 142 and wnose I.Q. level was superior. In spite of such homogeneity, very significant correlations were found between the tests used. The latter also included Progressive Matrices, N.I.I.P. Space Perception, and a battery of three verbal tests, these all being administered as group tests, and designed to give the writer supplementary information to the performance test results.en
dc.description.abstractIn order to exercise some degree of control over intelligence (so that its influence in the temperament situation could to some extent be "known ") the performance test battery was given to a group of subjects who were 13 years of age, and not yet 14, and whose I.Q. level was superior. In spite of such homogeneity, very significant correlations were found between the tests used. The latter also included Progressive Matrices, N.I.I.P. Space Perception, and a battery of three verbal tests, these all being administered as group tests, and designed to give the writer supplementary information to the performance test results.en
dc.description.abstractThe 6 tests with the highest inter-correlations were subjected to a centroid factorial analysis and it was found that only the first factor loadings were significant; that is the correlation.. matrix could be explained statistically in terms of one general factor. Psychologically this is meaningless. The method of Maximum Likelihood, invented to estimate the significance of factor loadings, might therefore be usually applied to many previous factorial studies from which psychological conclusions have been deduced. These psychological assumptions have often been criticised, when founded on Thurstone's method of rotation, because of arbitrary and subjective psychological interpretation. It seems to the present writer, that long before the validity of the psychology is questioned, the validity of the actual statistical method of rotation should be doubted, for if statistical results are not significant in the first place, no amount of alteration of dimension can make them so.
dc.description.abstractThe complete test battery yielded information regarding intellectual behaviour in general, and special abilities in particular; and on the temperamental side well defined psycho-motor individual differences.en
dc.description.abstractThe writer is of the opinion that much more intensive investigation of special abilities must be carried out, not only because of their educational significance in a vocational sense, but because of the tendency of a large special disability to upset personality adjustment. A wide discrepancy between and performance test score may indicate either special disability, or temperamental maladjustment (preoccupation with verbal symbols and unwillingness to carry thought into overt "performance' reaction, for example), or possibly a combination of both.en
dc.description.abstractThe whole field of imagery, which psychologists have tended to put on the historical shelf, should be re- opened and subjected to wide experimental investigation. Visual perception is likewise in need of further research, for the writer believes that variations on a general normal distribution scale of 3- dimensional visual perception are responsible at any rate for part of what we call spatial disability with visual material. One example of practical importance is the influence of such perception in the geometrical field of mathematics.en
dc.description.abstractThe writer erected a profile for each subject on the basis of general psycho-motor behaviour. She has done this merely tentatively to demonstrate what she believes is a possibility, arising from the performance test situation. She lays no claim to "goodness" or "trueness" of classification, but merely indicates what to her, at any rate, appears to be a useful description of her subjects. She does, however, put forward the suggestion that one very definite aspect of temperament can be tested. It is the general reaction which she designates activity", both actual and potential, and has been assessed on the basis of mono- or duo-manipulation, combined with speed of movement. The writer is very well aware that she is laying herself open to the criticism of measuring only a single "level" of personality here - the motor level. She is of the opinion, however, that this psycho -motor "Activity" is in this particular situation a generalized and fundamental reaction. Her reason for this belief is that in the performance test situation the use of hands is compulsory, only the particular mode of manipulation being spontaneous. The sole way in which the subject can put his thoughts into action with performance test material is by means of his hands, and since no time limit or need for speed is mentioned, he may proceed at his own rate.en
dc.description.abstractThe writer compared her own estimates on the general Activity trait with careful teachers' ratings, and using the chi-square technique she found that there was a significant relationship between the two. She believes that this assessment is of value for it permits a dynamic view of temperament. activity by itself must in turn be interpreted in terms of I.Q. level, special abilities, and emotional range. The writer is strongly of the opinion that the mere estimate of I.Q. and school achievement at the 11+ educational stage, to take but one example, is a most inadequate sample of each child's personality. The sooner means become available for a much more extensive assessment, the brighter will be the outlook for adult adjustment.en
dc.description.abstractThe writer therefore puts forward the suggestion that a battery of performance tests is of value because of its 3-fold revelation of intelligence, special abilities and temperament. One great advantage lies in the element of control exercised over motivation, the uncertainty of the latter being the great stumbling block in so many investigations of temperament and general personality reactions. If the tests are difficult enough, they will demonstrate behaviour under conditions of difficulty, and at the same time may reveal fundamental "constant" tendencies, for the subject will usually assume that the aim of the tests is to measure his achievement, and under conditions of mental concentration may be expected to give some revelation through psycho -motor channels of "real" generalized reactions. The writer believes also, that in the performance test situation, the essential unity of personality is preserved so that the psychologist may make a total approach to the individual under investigation.en
dc.description.abstractProbably it would be doubly valuable to give each subject two separate performance batteries at different times and take results from the average of the two. The writer would also like specially to mention the usefulness of the formboard type of test, so long as it goes on long enough, as does the Kent-Shakow. With this material the subject is at liberty to use only one hand, if he wishes to do soy but there is ample scope for the use of both should such an inner temperamental necessity arise.en
dc.description.abstractIn conclusion we must add that the method of assessment we have described depends ultimately upon the comparability of the behaviour shown in the miniature situation of the test with that which takes place in the very much more complex social setting of everyday life. she success of the method depends, therefore, upon the possibility of being able to tap general tendencies rather than specific reactions. With certain reservations, the writer believes that the psycho -motor trait. Activity does give evidence of being just such a "real" generalized tendency.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.isreferencedbyen
dc.subjectAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2019 Block 22en
dc.titleAn investigation into temperament: its relation to intelligence, and special abilitiesen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen


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