Cryptographic techniques for hardware security
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Traditionally, cryptographic algorithms are designed under the so-called black-box model, which considers adversaries that receive black-box access to the hardware implementation. Although a "black-box" treatment covers a wide range of attacks, it fails to capture reality adequately, as real-world adversaries can exploit physical properties of the implementation, mounting attacks that enable unexpected, non-black-box access, to the components of the cryptographic system. This type of attacks is widely known as physical attacks, and has proven to be a significant threat to the real-world security of cryptographic systems. The present dissertation is (partially) dealing with the problem of protecting cryptographic memory against physical attacks, via the use of non-malleable codes, which is a notion introduced in a preceding work, aiming to provide privacy of the encoded data, in the presence of adversarial faults. In the present thesis we improve the current state-of-the-art on non-malleable codes and we provide practical solutions for protecting real-world cryptographic implementations against physical attacks. Our study is primarily focusing on the following adversarial models: (i) the extensively studied split-state model, which assumes that private memory splits into two parts, and the adversary tampers with each part, independently, and (ii) the model of partial functions, which is introduced by the current thesis, and models adversaries that access arbitrary subsets of codeword locations, with bounded cardinality. Our study is comprehensive, covering one-time and continuous, attacks, while for the case of partial functions, we manage to achieve a stronger notion of security, that we call non-malleability with manipulation detection, that in addition to privacy, it also guarantees integrity of the private data. It should be noted that, our techniques are also useful for the problem of establishing, private, keyless communication, over adversarial communication channels. Besides physical attacks, another important concern related to cryptographic hardware security, is that the hardware fabrication process is assumed to be trusted. In reality though, when aiming to minimize the production costs, or whenever access to leading-edge manufacturing facilities is required, the fabrication process requires the involvement of several, potentially malicious, facilities. Consequently, cryptographic hardware is susceptible to the so-called hardware Trojans, which are hardware components that are maliciously implanted to the original circuitry, having as a purpose to alter the device's functionality, while remaining undetected. Part of the present dissertation, deals with the problem of protecting cryptographic hardware against Trojan injection attacks, by (i) proposing a formal model for assessing the security of cryptographic hardware, whose production has been partially outsourced to a set of untrusted, and possibly malicious, manufacturers, and (ii) by proposing a compiler that transforms any cryptographic circuit, into another, that can be securely outsourced.