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dc.contributor.authorFlorecki, Stanislawen
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-13T15:54:34Z
dc.date.available2018-09-13T15:54:34Z
dc.date.issued1943en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/32189
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractThe principal aims of Poland's foreign trade policy were twofold : I/ the economic structural aim - the industrialisation of the country as the result of agricultural overpopulation, 2/ the economic and political aim - the economic independence from Germany.en
dc.description.abstractThe industrialisation of the country had to solve the problem of the agricultural overpopulation, as the emigration and the agrarian reform were only fragmentary and temporary solution?.en
dc.description.abstractIn 192I the population of Poland numbered circa 27.2 mill., while in I939 circa 35 mill.The hidden structural unemployment was estimated at 5-7 mill.Poland,la.cking several essential raw materials as Iran ore, semi -base metals, cotton as well as having only a small output of machinery had to rely to a large extent on imports in her industrial expansion. The industrialisation was to be achieved by importing as many means of production as possible and by providing the industries with raw materials. This could be done : I/ by expanding imports in the way of increased exports and foreign credits, these latter being a temporary measure only.2/ By using the available foreign exchange for imports as much as possible for industrialisation purposes i.e. by influ. encing properly the structure of imports.3/ By developing export not only numerically but also by quality shifting them from raw materials to more elaborately transformed goods and thus increasing the employment home.4/ Bar reducing the invisible imports as shipping services, costs of middlemen in foreign trade etc.en
dc.description.abstractThe second aim - the economic independence from Germany was created by Germany herself. The export embargo on the engineering products in first few post -war years, designed to make impossible Poland's reconstruction,then the German effort in 1925 to gain a trade monopoly inn Poland's market by the means of black mail With closing coal imports from Polish Upper Silesia - simply forced Poland to fight for her life.This economic struggle with Germany caused Poland to replace her export and import markets.It resulted partially in the development of national industries, partially shifting foreign trade to other countries. The basis of these latter means were the relations with Great Britain and the British Empire.en
dc.description.abstractIn the light of to -day's experiences,hopes and difficulties it seems necessary to draw the following conclusions from this recently past period:en
dc.description.abstract1 /.It is dangerous for the economic stability and development of the country to finance the reconstruction work by means of private credits, liable to the withdrawal at the private initiative at a short notice.en
dc.description.abstractThe burden of the so- financed reconstruction hampered Poland's economic development and her foreign trade during almost all the inter-war period.en
dc.description.abstract2 /.The volume of the foreign trade was to a very large extent dependant on factors, outside the sovereign will of the economically weaker States.The best efforts of their government and citizens together could not counter -act the influence of these factors,being the resultant of international clashes of economic forces.Thus the freedom of action in the field of foreign trade was for Poland very restricted.But at the same time the results achieved prove the value of such even restricted independence.en
dc.description.abstractThis actual limitation as well as the efficiency of the national foreign trade in profiting from even the restricted scope of action in the past period are often overlooked.They both ought to be taken into account by partisans and critics of the idea of a planned organization of the world trade.en
dc.description.abstract3 /.The lack of development of trade relations between Poland and France notwithstanding reciprocal efforts proves that the political alliance and good will from both sides are not sufficient to foster trade relations without a real structural background.en
dc.description.abstract4 /.As regards Polish- British trade - the experiences of the past period proved that beside the complementary character of the trade of both countries,the good quality of British goods and willingness to buy them - the reciprocal knowledge of the market conditions, in the full meaning of this word, and their practical application are an essential factor for the development of the trade relations between the two countries.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.isreferencedbyen
dc.subjectAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2018 Block 20en
dc.titleForeign trade of Poland between 1918-1939, with special reference to the trade with Britainen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen


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