Scaling up virtual MIMO systems
Gonzalez Perez, Miryam Guadalupe
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Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are a mature technology that has been incorporated into current wireless broadband standards to improve the channel capacity and link reliability. Nevertheless, due to the continuous increasing demand for wireless data traffic new strategies are to be adopted. Very large MIMO antenna arrays represents a paradigm shift in terms of theory and implementation, where the use of tens or hundreds of antennas provides significant improvements in throughput and radiated energy efficiency compared to single antennas setups. Since design constraints limit the number of usable antennas, virtual systems can be seen as a promising technique due to their ability to mimic and exploit the gains of multi-antenna systems by means of wireless cooperation. Considering these arguments, in this work, energy efficient coding and network design for large virtual MIMO systems are presented. Firstly, a cooperative virtual MIMO (V-MIMO) system that uses a large multi-antenna transmitter and implements compress-and-forward (CF) relay cooperation is investigated. Since constructing a reliable codebook is the most computationally complex task performed by the relay nodes in CF cooperation, reduced complexity quantisation techniques are introduced. The analysis is focused on the block error probability (BLER) and the computational complexity for the uniform scalar quantiser (U-SQ) and the Lloyd-Max algorithm (LM-SQ). Numerical results show that the LM-SQ is simpler to design and can achieve a BLER performance comparable to the optimal vector quantiser. Furthermore, due to its low complexity, U-SQ could be consider particularly suitable for very large wireless systems. Even though very large MIMO systems enhance the spectral efficiency of wireless networks, this comes at the expense of linearly increasing the power consumption due to the use of multiple radio frequency chains to support the antennas. Thus, the energy efficiency and throughput of the cooperative V-MIMO system are analysed and the impact of the imperfect channel state information (CSI) on the system’s performance is studied. Finally, a power allocation algorithm is implemented to reduce the total power consumption. Simulation results show that wireless cooperation between users is more energy efficient than using a high modulation order transmission and that the larger the number of transmit antennas the lower the impact of the imperfect CSI on the system’s performance. Finally, the application of cooperative systems is extended to wireless self-backhauling heterogeneous networks, where the decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is employed to provide a cost-effective and reliable backhaul. The associated trade-offs for a heterogeneous network with inhomogeneous user distributions are investigated through the use of sleeping strategies. Three different policies for switching-off base stations are considered: random, load-based and greedy algorithms. The probability of coverage for the random and load-based sleeping policies is derived. Moreover, an energy efficient base station deployment and operation approach is presented. Numerical results show that the average number of base stations required to support the traffic load at peak-time can be reduced by using the greedy algorithm for base station deployment and that highly clustered networks exhibit a smaller average serving distance and thus, a better probability of coverage.