Fresh specimens of Echinoccccus granulosus, Hydatiqera
taeniaeformis, Multiceps multiceps, Taenia hydatiqena,
Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia solium and
Taeniarhynchus saginatus mere collected from natural infections and from experimentally infected animals. Collections
mere made in the United Kingdom and in Nigeria and a feu;
specimens mere also obtained from other countries abroad
Material from the specimens mas compared by staining,
serological techniques and enzyme electrophoresis.
Staining ova by the Ziehl-Neelsen method was not
successful in differentiating ova of any of the species
including T, saginatus and T. solium.
Serological techniques that were tried included oval
precipitation, agar gel diffusion precipitation, fluorescent
antibody, immunoelectrophoresis and the enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Strobilate, oval and, in some
instances, larval cyst antigens, were used in tests against
antisera raised in rabbits and other species. With antisera
that had been absorbed by one or two heterologous
antigens, some success was achieved in agar gel diffusion
precipitation tests and with ELISA in differentiating
strcbilate tissue, but serological techniques were not
generally adequate for this purpose.
Success in differentiating taeniid material was
achieved by enzyme electrophoresis on thin layer starch gels.
Of the many enzymes tested, five mere found to display
interspecies zymogram differences in the pattern and
mobility of their multiple forms; adenylate kinase,
glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, hexokinase
and glucose phosphate isomerase, of u/hich the latter tiuo
were the most useful for differentiation.
Wo differences were seen between larval and adult
material except for the presence of host enzymes in the
former which were easily identified by comparison with
host tissue extracts. Wo differences wore seen between
immature, mature and gravid proglottides and no individual
variation was seen between worm specimens. Anthelmintic
treatment did not affect worm enzyme patterns,
Taeniid species were compared with one another and
also with other tapeworm species- The mobility and pattern
of the enzyme forms in zymograms differed more between
unrelated than between related species. With glucose phosphate isomerase it was possible to identify most of the
taeniid species. When this enzyme was preserved in a
solution containing enzyme stabilisers, it stored well over
a long period especially in liquid nitrogen or freeze dried
and kept at »20°C. Dilution of samples did not distort
zymogram patterns and crude extracts could be identified
using the mobility of the slowest moving band as the
criterion. This method was used successfully for a survey
in Nigeria, Identification was by comparison with a
known species. The other enzymes were useful for confirming the diagnosis.
Strain variation betu/een E. granulosus of horse and
sheep origin was seen in specimens collected from Belgium
and different parts of the United Kingdom. Cysts from
oxen were identical to those from sheep, but indirect
comparison with cysts from Nigerian camels showed these
to be different from both the equine and ovine strains.