Calculation and design of tunnel ventilation systems using a two-scale modelling approach
Carvel, Ricky O
Torero, Jose L
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This paper develops a novel modelling approach for ventilation flow in tunnels at ambient conditions (i.e. cold flow). The complexity of full CFD models of low in tunnels or the inaccuracies of simplistic assumptions are avoided by efficiently combining a simple, mono-dimensional approach to model tunnel regions where the flow is fully developed, with detailed CFD solutions where flow conditions require 3D resolution. This multiscale method has not previously been applied to tunnel flows. The low computational cost of this method is of great value when hundreds of possible ventilation scenarios need to be studied. The multi-scale approach is able to provide detailed local flow conditions, where required, with a significant reduction in the overall computational time. The coupling procedures and the numerical error induced by this new approach are studied and discussed. The paper describes a comparison between numerical results and experimental data recorded within a real tunnel underlining how the developed methodology can be used as a valid design tool for any tunnel ventilation system. This work sets the foundations for the coupling of fire-induced flows and ventilation systems where further complexities are introduced by the hot gas plume and smoke stratification.