Factor structure, validity and test re-test reliability of the Austin, Farrelly, Black and Moore emotional manipulation scale.
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A self report emotional manipulation scale was completed by 121 participants, who also completed a tactics of manipulation scale and a personality measure. A subset of the group (thirty three participants) also completed a re-test of the emotional manipulation scale. Factor analysis of the emotional manipulation scale suggested a one or three factor structure. Examination of the three factor structure showed that the original factor structure had not been replicated. Instead a one factor solution was decided upon; a general emotional manipulation factor. Factor analysis of the tactics of manipulation scale suggested that three of the six tactics of manipulation proposed by Buss, Gomes, Higgins & Lauterbach (1987) had been replicated. Correlations between the general emotional manipulation factor and the original six tactics of manipulation found significant correlations with all of the tactics of manipulation with the exception of the reason tactic. These results show the general emotional manipulation factor has adequate reliability. Correlations between the first testing of the emotional manipulation scale and the re-test were found to be significant, suggesting good reliability. It was found that both the emotional manipulation scale and the general emotional manipulation factor had strong correlations between the first testing and re-test; this suggests that the emotional manipulation scale and general emotional manipulation factor have strong reliability. Personality traits were found to correlate with both emotional manipulation and tactics of manipulation. Surprisingly, Neuroticism did not correlate with any of the manipulation scale, this goes against previous findings. The emotional manipulation scale was found to correlate positively with Conscientiousness and negatively with Openness. Agreeableness was the one personality trait that correlated significantly with the tactics of manipulation in the current study and with the findings in previous studies by Buss (1987, 1992). Agreeableness was found to correlate negatively with coercion and silent treatment and positively with reason. This was replicated in the current study. Additional testing found a number of significant gender differences in the use of emotional manipulation, tactics of manipulation and personality traits. Significant gender differences were found for tactics of manipulation and personality traits. Females scored significantly higher on the emotional manipulation factor and for three of the six tactics of manipulation. Males were found to score significantly higher on the coercion tactic alone. Males scored lower on Agreeableness, which correlates with Austin et al (2007) findings. However, they also scored lower on Neuroticism. Overall, the results indicated that the factor structure of the emotional manipulation scale is unclear and requires further research; however the validity and reliability of the general emotional manipulation factor and emotional manipulation scale seem more secure.