Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis: control by molecules and signalling cascades
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Synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling in the presynapse is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During mild stimulation clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) dominates, however during intense stimulation activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant form of membrane retrieval. The aim of this thesis was to determine how the signalling molecule GSK3 controlled ADBE, with the hypothesis that this enzyme was required at multiple stages of this endocytosis mode. I also hoped to identify a specific cargo for ADBE. I found that during intense action potential stimulation, a localised calcium increase is necessary for the activation of Akt, which inhibited GSK3. This activation was mediated via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, I found that phosphatidylinositol 4-kinaseIIα (PI4KIIα), a molecule whose abundance is regulated by GSK3, had a key role in ADBE. Specifically, I found that the absence of PI4KIIα accelerated CME but inhibited ADBE and that PI4KIIα controls CME and ADBE via distinct mechanisms. The PI4KIIα study revealed potential cross-talk between CME and ADBE. To determine whether modulation of either endocytosis mode impacts on the other, the retrieval of genetically-encoded reporters of SV cargo was monitored during intense stimulation during inhibition of either CME or ADBE. The recovery of almost all SV cargo was unaffected by ADBE inhibition but was arrested by abolishing CME. In contrast, VAMP4-pHluorin retrieval was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE and not by blocking CME. Knockdown of VAMP4 also arrested ADBE, indicating that in addition to being the first identified ADBE cargo, it is also essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.