Factors affecting daytime function in the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome
Kingshott, Ruth N.
MetadataShow full item record
The sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) is characterised by repetitive upper airway obstructions during sleep, which lead to recurrent hypoxaemia and brief arousals from sleep. SAHS patients suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cognitive impairments and decreased psychological well -being. Previous studies have examined relationships between the nocturnal events of SAHS and a limited number of daytime function measures, frequently in small, non -consecutive patient samples. Relationships found have been either weak or non -significant. This thesis examines the relationships between a wide range of nocturnal sleep and breathing variables and daytime function. Additionally, this thesis examines the use of subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness, to determine which tests provide the most useful information for SAHS patients.A pilot study found that neither the 103 patients' nor their partners' Epworth rating of sleepiness were strong predictors of SAHS severity. In 150 patients with a wide range of SAHS severity, relationships between nocturnal events and daytime function were examined using newer definitions of arousal and measures of sleep continuity. A broad battery of daytime tests were used including the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) and the short form (SF) -36. Unlike previous studies, all correlations were controlled for age and awake oxygen saturation, known to influence the variables measured. The current study also examined these correlations in an unselected patient sample with a range of disease severity. The study found a lack of strong relationships between conventional nocturnal sleep and breathing variables and daytime function. Few baseline variables significantly predicted CPAP use.Daytime function measures were compared within the 150 patients. The multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and the MWT displayed a moderate, discordant relationship. Measures of cognitive function, psychological well -being and subjective sleepiness ii better related to the MWT than MSLT, suggesting that the MWT may be a more useful tool in assessing functional impairment in sleep apnoea.A randomised cross -over study, on 12 SANS patients, compared daytime sleepiness measured following a night's sleep at home (as performed in this thesis) versus a night in the sleep centre (standard protocol). Preliminary results indicated that daytime sleepiness, as measured by the MSLT and MWT, was not significantly different between the two study limbs. This suggests that the non -standard method of conducting the MSLT and MWT in this thesis does not explain the lack of correlational relationships between nocturnal measures and daytime sleepiness.The studies presented in this thesis demonstrate a lack of identified factors affecting daytime function in a group of unselected SANS patients. This may be due to inter - individual patient variability. Also, more sophisticated nocturnal SANS measures should be examined, as should more `real -life' daytime assessments, such as ambulatory EEG recorded during a patient's normal daily routine.