Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Tidal Current Energy Extraction
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Numerical and experimental investigations of tidal current energy extraction have been conducted in this study. A laboratory-scale water flume was simulated using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. In the numerical model, the tidal current turbine is represented with an actuator disk, which produces a pressure drop associated with energy loss. The free water surface is considered in the model using a volume of fluid method and is allowed to deform freely. Numerical results identified that a localised wake is formed behind the tidal current turbine and there is considerable localised flow acceleration around and most especially, under the energy extraction device. A free water surface drop is visualised in the model results due to the energy extraction and this free surface drop is believed to have an impact on the recovery of turbine wake. The influence of other parameters like water depth, ambient turbulence and flow speed on the tidal current energy extraction are also testified, based on the numerical model. Numerical results demonstrated that, because of the existence of a free water surface, tidal turbine interaction with the flow is a complicated three dimensional problem. Therefore, completely using the theoretical methods of wind turbines for tidal current turbine study would be inappropriate. Two physical tests were deigned for the experimental investigation of energy extraction from tidal currents and were carried out under different testing conditions: one was in moving water using a natural open channel and the other was in still water using a towing tank. Comparing experimental and numerical results of wake velocity profiles, good qualitative agreement has been obtained, which proves that the proposed numerical model can provide essential insight into the mechanism of wake development behind tidal current turbines. Experimental results also confirmed that, although moving water is the real operational condition of tidal turbines, a towing tank is still an ideal facility for the experimental study of tidal turbines, especially at the early stages of understanding of the detailed physical processes governing the performance of rotors and turbine wake behaviour. This study is a comprehensive investigation into tidal current energy extraction at laboratory scale. Environmental impact of tidal current energy extraction is further recognized and an appropriate experimental facility for the model testing of tidal energy extraction devices is recommended.