In this investigation, thirty boys and girls
in the middle senior class of an Edinburgh elementary
school were examined in:
I. (a) Upper limit of tonal hearing;
(b) Lower limit of tonal hearing;;
(d) Speaking voice;
(e) Singing voice.
They were also given as a group:
II. (a) An intelligence test (Otis, Primary,
(b) Edinburgh Education Committee's
attainment tests in: reading,
spelling, vocabulary, addition,
subtraction, multiplication and
As the investigation covered a very wide field
only the principal conclusions will be stated:
1. In the perception of high frequency sounds
boys and girls were equally successful.
The average upper limit of each group
was approximately 18,670 v.d.
2. In the perception of low frequency sounds
neither group displayed a superiority.
The average lower limit of boys and
that of girls was 18.2 v.d. The children
regarded this as the most difficult
test as they found it hard to distinguish
the fundamental hum the octave
The Pitch discrimination test presented
less difficulty to the girls than to
the boys. They required fewer practice
tests and their average threshold was
7.5 v.d. (M.V. 1.8 v.d.; extremes 4.6
and 11.8 v.d.), whereas that of the boys
was 9.3 v.d. (M.V. 3.2 v.d.; extremes
4.0 and 20.0) . 4. Of the correlation coefficients calculated
between Pitch discrimination and
(b(a) intelligence quotients, and
) attainment quotients, the most
significant was that between pitch
discriminatión and A.Q. 's in reading
where the value of?' was found to be
+ 0.44± 0.099.
5. From examination of the speaking voice it
was concluded that the voices of boys
and girls were very similar as regards
the average pitch levels most frequently
employed but that in (a) inflectional
movement; (b) quality; (o) fluency;
and (d) articulation, the girls were
6. Examination of the singing voice showed
that as regards effective voice compass
there was no difference between boys and
girls. The average range extended from
b or c' to e" or fu.
7. In quality, the girls' singing voices were
superior to those of the boys. Among
the latter, many were marred by huskiness resulting from inflammations set up
in the vocal cords by excessive shouting
8. Girls showed greater command over the head - voice mechanism.
9. In discrimination of pitch many children
gained assistance from kinaesthetic
sensations arising in the larynx.
10.. There appeared to be a considerable degree
of relationship between capacity for
pitch discrimination and the amplitude
and frequency of inflectional movements
employed in speech.
11. Girls apparently derive appreciable trainin
from their frequent use of inflections i
speech. As a result they require fewer
practice tests in pitch discrimination.
12. Their greater use of inflectional movement
is traceable to their more emotional and
less repressive nature.