Validation of a new assessment of self-disgust in non-clinical and clinical samples in Saudi Arabia
Alanazi, Fahad Saeid M
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Research indicates self-disgust plays a significant role in the development and maintenance of depression, yet it is still a concept that is inadequately developed and often viewed as being only a single-faceted emotion. Although number of measures for assessing disgust have been developed, many of these give limited insight into notions of the self, focusing instead on external rather than internal matters. Hence, it is suggested that current tools to assess self-disgust are not sufficiently comprehensive. Thus, this thesis aims to develop a new scale of self-disgust that includes multiple aspects of the self. In this thesis, a new psychometric instrument, the Edinburgh Self-Disgust Scale (ESDS), is proposed to investigate self-disgust in both a clinical and non-clinical population in Saudi Arabia. Methods of translation and back translation are used, along with six instruments translated from English into Arabic. The first study aims to examine the psychometric properties (descriptive analysis, item-to-scale correlation, split-half reliability, internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis) of the new questionnaire within a non-clinical sample. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supports the division of the ESDS into five subscales (body shape, concept of the self, unacceptable behaviour, treatment of others and past-experience). External validity is confirmed through associations of subscales with existing measurements of factors relating to self-disgust: The Body Image Scale (BIS); the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale, the Other as Shamer Scale (OAS), the Experience of Shame Scale (ESS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviour Scale, the Self-Disgust Scale (SDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory – 2nd Edition (BDI-II). The results indicate that ESDS is significantly correlated with these measurements. The second study aims to replicate these findings using the clinical sample, to ensure that the ESDS behaves in a similar manner within a clinical population. Convergent validity with the BDI-II is also established. The ESDS is found to be significantly correlated with depression on the BDI and the existing factor structure is supported. It is concluded that the ESDS provides an appropriate and comprehensive assessment of self-disgust for an Arabic speaking population and shows convergent validity with the BDI-II in a clinical sample. Recommendations for future research and clinical utility are given.