Bayesian models of category acquisition and meaning development
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The ability to organize concepts (e.g., dog, chair) into efficient mental representations, i.e., categories (e.g., animal, furniture) is a fundamental mechanism which allows humans to perceive, organize, and adapt to their world. Much research has been dedicated to the questions of how categories emerge and how they are represented. Experimental evidence suggests that (i) concepts and categories are represented through sets of features (e.g., dogs bark, chairs are made of wood) which are structured into different types (e.g, behavior, material); (ii) categories and their featural representations are learnt jointly and incrementally; and (iii) categories are dynamic and their representations adapt to changing environments. This thesis investigates the mechanisms underlying the incremental and dynamic formation of categories and their featural representations through cognitively motivated Bayesian computational models. Models of category acquisition have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this thesis, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, using nouns as a stand-in for their reference concepts, and their linguistic contexts as a representation of the concepts’ features. The use of text corpora allows us to (i) develop large-scale unsupervised models thus simulating human learning, and (ii) model child category acquisition, leveraging the linguistic input available to children in the form of transcribed child-directed language. In the first part of this thesis we investigate the incremental process of category acquisition. We present a Bayesian model and an incremental learning algorithm which sequentially integrates newly observed data. We evaluate our model output against gold standard categories (elicited experimentally from human participants), and show that high-quality categories are learnt both from child-directed data and from large, thematically unrestricted text corpora. We find that the model performs well even under constrained memory resources, resembling human cognitive limitations. While lists of representative features for categories emerge from this model, they are neither structured nor jointly optimized with the categories. We address these shortcomings in the second part of the thesis, and present a Bayesian model which jointly learns categories and structured featural representations. We present both batch and incremental learning algorithms, and demonstrate the model’s effectiveness on both encyclopedic and child-directed data. We show that high-quality categories and features emerge in the joint learning process, and that the structured features are intuitively interpretable through human plausibility judgment evaluation. In the third part of the thesis we turn to the dynamic nature of meaning: categories and their featural representations change over time, e.g., children distinguish some types of features (such as size and shade) less clearly than adults, and word meanings adapt to our ever changing environment and its structure. We present a dynamic Bayesian model of meaning change, which infers time-specific concept representations as a set of feature types and their prevalence, and captures their development as a smooth process. We analyze the development of concept representations in their complexity over time from child-directed data, and show that our model captures established patterns of child concept learning. We also apply our model to diachronic change of word meaning, modeling how word senses change internally and in prevalence over centuries. The contributions of this thesis are threefold. Firstly, we show that a variety of experimental results on the acquisition and representation of categories can be captured with computational models within the framework of Bayesian modeling. Secondly, we show that natural language text is an appropriate source of information for modeling categorization-related phenomena suggesting that the environmental structure that drives category formation is encoded in this data. Thirdly, we show that the experimental findings hold on a larger scale. Our models are trained and tested on a larger set of concepts and categories than is common in behavioral experiments and the categories and featural representations they can learn from linguistic text are in principle unrestricted.