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dc.contributor.advisorMeredith, Anna
dc.contributor.authorPennycott, Thomas William
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-05T10:17:35Z
dc.date.available2017-10-05T10:17:35Z
dc.date.issued2016-11-29
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/23615
dc.description.abstractThere is growing concern about the impact of human activities on wildlife, both at the level of the individual animal and at a global population level, and the need for surveillance of wildlife for evidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases has never been greater. There is also much interest in attempting to help wildlife by treating and rehabilitating sick and injured wild animals and by providing supplementary feeding to garden birds. This thesis reviews the literature describing the diseases found in the United Kingdom (UK) in different birds of the orders Passeriformes and Columbiformes, the orders of birds with which members of the general public and wildlife rehabilitators are most likely to have contact. The thesis then collates and analyses the postmortem findings from wild bird surveillance carried out on 2048 birds of these orders at one diagnostic laboratory in Scotland over a twenty-year period (1994- 2013). The overall aim was to make maximum use of surveillance data already gathered but not previously readily available, to inform those involved with wildlife disease surveillance, wildlife rehabilitation, and members of the public providing supplementary feeding to garden birds. During the 20 years of wild bird disease surveillance, 42 endemic conditions or pathogens were identified, raising awareness and increasing our understanding of these conditions. One re-emerging disease, salmonellosis, came to prominence and then declined during the surveillance period, and was confirmed in approximately 350 garden birds. Two new conditions were described in finches; Escherichia albertii bacteraemia in approximately 150 finches and Trichomonas gallinae infection in approximately 370 finches. The large numbers of birds with salmonellosis, E. albertii bacteraemia or trichomonosis permitted further analysis by species of bird, geographic region, and distribution by age and sex, permitting conclusions to be drawn regarding the epidemiology of these diseases. Two new conditions were diagnosed in choughs (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), a species of conservation concern in the UK; a developmental abnormality of the eye and sometimes brain of young choughs, most likely inherited, and significant helminthosis caused by spirurid gizzard worms and intestinal thorny-headed worms. These findings will influence future attempts to conserve this species in Scotland. Another new condition encountered was enteritis and/or hepatitis associated with schistosome-like eggs, diagnosed in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and a dunnock (Prunella modularis). More specific identification of the causal organism and evaluation of potential zoonotic implications are required. Two conditions were investigated for which no satisfactory aetiological agent could be identified; a non-suppurative encephalitis affecting multiple fledgling starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), and a necrotic oesophagitis of unknown cause detected in five chough nestlings. Three organisms identified in wild birds elsewhere in the world and found for the first time in the UK as part of this surveillance study were the avian gastric yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (“megabacteria”) in greenfinches (Chloris chloris) and a waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), Mycoplasma sturni in blackbirds, starlings and corvids, and Ornithonyssus sp. mites in corvids. Screening for two zoonotic pathogens exotic to UK wildlife, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and West Nile virus (WNV) was carried out on over 600 samples and over 500 samples respectively, but no positive results were obtained. Investigation of novel and re-emerging conditions and screening for exotic pathogens relied heavily on work carried out by other laboratories, underlining the importance of collaboration between multiple laboratories when carrying out disease surveillance. To aid those working in wild bird disease surveillance, diagnosis and treatment, a collection of approximately 700 images of lesions, parasites and their eggs or oocysts is included as an appendix to this thesis, as has a guide to the presumptive identification of some of the internal parasites encountered. This study has demonstrated the ever-changing nature of diseases of wild birds of the orders Passeriformes and Columbiformes, and the same is likely to be true of wild birds in other orders. Continued wild bird disease surveillance is essential, to help safeguard the health of wildlife, livestock, humans, and indeed the environment itself.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.hasversionCUNNINGHAM, A. A., LAWSON, B., BENNETT, M., CHANTREY, J., KIRKWOOD, J. K., PENNYCOTT, T. W. & SIMPSON, V. (2005) Garden bird health. Veterinary Record 156, 656en
dc.relation.hasversionFOSTER, G., ROSS, H., PENNYCOTT, T., HOPKINS, G. & MCLAREN, I. (1998) Isolation of Escherichia coli O86: K61 producing cyto-lethal distending toxin from wild birds of the finch family. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26, 395-398en
dc.relation.hasversionFOSTER, G., EVANS, J., KNIGHT, H. I., SMITH, A. W., GUNN, G. J., ALLISON, L. J., SYNGE, B. A. & PENNYCOTT, T. W. (2006) Analysis of feces samples collected from a wild-bird garden feeding station in Scotland for the presence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 2265-2267en
dc.relation.hasversionGRANT, D., TODD, P. A. & PENNYCOTT, T. (2007) Monitoring wild greenfinch (Carduelis chloris) for Salmonella enterica typhimurium. Ecological Research 22, 571-574en
dc.relation.hasversionLAWSON, B., CUNNINGHAM, A., CHANTREY, J., HUGHES, L., KIRKWOOD, J., PENNYCOTT, T. & SIMPSON, V. (2006a) Epidemic finch mortality. Veterinary Record 159, 367en
dc.relation.hasversionLAWSON, B., MALNICK, H., PENNYCOTT, T. W., MACGREGOR, S. K., JOHN, S. K., DUNCAN, G., HUGHES, L. A., CHANTREY, J. & CUNNINGHAM, A. A. (2011b) Acute necrotising pneumonitis associated with Suttonella ornithocola infection in tits (Paridae). Veterinary Journal 188, 96-100en
dc.relation.hasversionLAWSON, B., ROBINSON, R. A., COLVILE, K. M., PECK, K. M., CHANTREY, J., PENNYCOTT, T. W., SIMPSON, V. R., TOMS, M. P. & CUNNINGHAM, A. A. (2012b) The emergence and spread of finch trichomonosis in the British Isles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367, 2852-2863en
dc.relation.hasversionMCNAMEE, P., PENNYCOTT, T. & MCCONNELL, S. (1995) Clinical and pathological changes associated with Atoxoplasma in a captive bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula). Veterinary Record 136, 221-222en
dc.relation.hasversionPATERSON, G. K., LARSEN, A., ROBB, A., EDWARDS, G., PENNYCOTT, T., FOSTER, G., MOT, D., HERMANS, K., BAERT, K. & PEACOCK, S. (2012) The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67, 2809-2813en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T. W. (1996a) Pigeons - diarrhoea. In Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Waterfowl. Eds N. A. FORBES, N. H. HARCOURT-BROWN. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp. 278-283en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T. W. (1996b) Pigeons - nervous conditions. In Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Waterfowl. Eds N. A. FORBES, N. H. HARCOURT-BROWN. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp. 267-271en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T. (2003) Scaly leg, papillomas and pox in wild birds. Veterinary Record 152, 444en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T. (2008) Pigeons: infectious diseases. In BSAVA Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Passerine Birds. Eds J. CHITTY, M. LEIRZ. Gloucester, British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp. 311-319en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T. & MIDDLETON, J. (1997) Suspected PTFE toxicity in wild birds. Veterinary Record 141, 255en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., ROSS, H., MCLAREN, I., PARK, A., HOPKINS, G. & FOSTER, G. (1998) Causes of death of wild birds of the family Fringillidae in Britain. Veterinary Record 143, 155-158en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., CINDEREY, R., PARK, A., MATHER, H. & FOSTER, G. (2002a) Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O86 in wild birds at two garden sites in south-west Scotland. Veterinary Record 151, 563-567en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., GOUGH, R., WOOD, A. & REID, H. (2002b) Encephalitis of unknown aetiology in young starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Veterinary Record 151, 213-214en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., DUNCAN, G. & VENUGOPAL, K. (2003) Marek's disease, candidiasis and megabacteriosis in a flock of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Veterinary Record 153, 293-297en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., CINDEREY, R., PARK, A., MATHER, H., FOSTER, G. & GRANT, D. (2005a) Further monitoring for Salmonella species and Escherichia coli O86 at a bird table in south-west Scotland. Veterinary Record 157, 477-480en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., DARE, C., YAVARI, C. & BRADBURY, J. (2005b) Mycoplasma sturni and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild birds in Scotland. Veterinary Record 156, 513-515en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., LAWSON, B., CUNNINGHAM, A., SIMPSON, V. & CHANTREY, J. (2005c) Necrotic ingluvitis in wild finches. Veterinary Record 157, 360en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., PARK, A. & MATHER, H. (2006) Isolation of different serovars of Salmonella enterica from wild birds in Great Britain between 1995 and 2003. Veterinary Record 158, 817-820en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T. W., DAGLEISH, M. P., WOOD, A. M. & GARCIA, C. (2009) Chlamydophila psittaci in wild birds in the UK. Veterinary Record 164, 157-158en
dc.relation.hasversionPENNYCOTT, T., MATHER, H., BENNETT, G. & FOSTER, G. (2010) Salmonellosis in garden birds in Scotland, 1995 to 2008: geographic region, Salmonella enterica phage type and bird species. Veterinary Record 166, 419-421en
dc.relation.hasversionPHIPPS, L., DUFF, J., HOLMES, J., GOUGH, R., MCCRACKEN, F., MCELHINNEY, L., JOHNSON, N., HUGHES, L., CHANTREY, J. & PENNYCOTT, T. (2008) Surveillance for West Nile virus in British birds (2001 to 2006). Veterinary Record 162, 413-415en
dc.relation.hasversionROBB, A., PENNYCOTT, T., DUNCAN, G. & FOSTER, G. (2013) Staphylococcus aureus carrying divergent mecA homologue (mecALGA251) isolated from a free-ranging wild bird. Veterinary Microbiology 162, 300-301en
dc.relation.hasversionROBINSON, R. A., LAWSON, B., TOMS, M. P., PECK, K. M., KIRKWOOD, J. K., CHANTREY, J., CLATWORTHY, I. R., EVANS, A. D., HUGHES, L. A., HUTCHINSON, O. C., JOHN, S. K., PENNYCOTT, T. W., PERKINS, M. W., ROWLEY, P. S., SIMPSON, V. R., TYLER, K. M. & CUNNINGHAM, A. A. (2010) Emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common British birds. PLoS ONE 5, e12215en
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/*
dc.subjectdiseasesen
dc.subjectwild birdsen
dc.subjectScotlanden
dc.subjectPasseriformesen
dc.subjectColumbiformesen
dc.titleDiseases of wild birds of the orders Passeriformes and Columbiformes - a review of conditions reported from the United Kingdom and an analysis of results from wild bird disease surveillance in Scotland 1994-2013en
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnameDVM Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgeryen


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