Curvilinear shallow flow and particle tracking model for a groyned river bend
Jalali, Mohammad Mahdi
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Hydraulic structures such as dykes and groynes are commonly used to help control river flows and reduce flood risk. The present research aims to develop an idealized model of the hydrodynamics in the vicinity of a large river bend, and the advection and mixing processes where groynes are located. In this study a curvilinear model of shallow water equations is applied to investigate chaotic advection of particles in a river bend similar in dimensions to a typical bend in the River Danube, Hungary. First, a curvilinear grid generator is developed based on Poisson-type elliptic partial differential equations. The grid generator is verified for benchmark tests concerning a circular domain and for distorted grids in a rectangular domain. It is found that multi-grid (MG) and conjugate gradient (CG) methods performed better computationally than successive over-relaxation (SOR) in generating the curvilinear grids. The open channel hydrodynamics are modelled using the shallow water equations (SWEs) derived by depth-averaging the continuity and Navier-Stokes momentum equations. Both Cartesian and curvilinear forms of the shallow water equations are presented. Both sets of equations are discretized spatially using finite differences and the solution marched forward in time using fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. The shallow water solvers are verified and validated for uniform flow in the rectangular channel, wind-induced set up in rectangular and circular basins, flow past a sidewall expansion, and Shallow flow in a rectangular channel with single groyne. A Lagrangian particle tracking model is used to predict the trajectories of tracer particles, and bilinear interpolation is used to provide a representation of the continuous flow field from discrete results. The particle tracking model is verified for trajectories in the flow field of a single free vortex and in the alternating flow field of a pair of blinking vortices. Excellent agreement is obtained with analytical solutions, previously published results in the literature. The combined shallow flow and Lagrangian particle tracking model is then used to simulate particle advection in the flow past a side-wall cavity containing a groyne and reasonable agreement is obtained with published experimental and alternative numerical data. Finally, the combined model is applied to simulate the shallow flow hydrodynamics, advection and mixing processes in the vicinity of groynes in river bend, the dimensions representative of a typical bend in the Danube River, Hungary.