Rūm Saljūq architecture of Anatolia 1170-1220
McClary, Richard Piran
MetadataShow full item record
This thesis investigates the surviving architecture built in Anatolia from circa 1170 to 1220, a period that encompasses the rule of the Rūm Saljūq sultans Kılıç Arslān II to ʿIzz al-Dīn Kay Kāwūs I. This was the period which saw the development of a discernible Rūm Saljūq architectural aesthetic across the lands under their control. Due in part to the accident of survival, the main focus is on imperial structures, beginning with the palace kiosk of Kılıç Arslān II in Konya and ending with the hospital and tomb of ʿIzz al-Dīn Kay Kāwūs I in Sivas. The thesis begins with a linear chronology of the various Turko-Muslim dynasties in the region, focussing primarily on the Rūm Saljūqs. This provides the historical and political context within which the corpus of buildings was created, and is based primarily on Arabic, Persian and Byzantine chronicles, augmented by the most recent scholarship. The second chapter studies the surviving corpus of portals, along with a number of tombs, and the monumental minaret attached to the qibla wall of the Great Mosque in Sivas. This reveals the range of patterns and forms which were employed to create an identifiably Islamic aesthetic. The portals are all stone, while the tombs may be in brick or stone. The minaret is entirely brick-built, and the analysis of the brick and glazed tile structures demonstrates the wide ranging connections to Persianate architecture, especially the Ildegüzid architecture of Nakhchivān and Marāgha. Chapter three is divided into two sections, with the first consisting of analysis of the various constituent materials used to construct the corpus. The palace kiosk of Kılıç Arslān II in Konya is used as a case study throughout the first part of the chapter. The second section examines working methods, and concludes with a hypothesis as to the division of roles among the skilled craftsmen and semi-skilled labourers responsible for constructing the buildings under discussion. The fourth chapter is devoted entirely to the hospital and tomb of ʿIzz al-Dīn Kay Kāwūs I in Sivas. Along with revealing hitherto unstudied decorative elements of the complex, the analysis shows that the tomb was part of the original design schema. This is in contrast to the currently accepted view of scholars that it was added after the death of ʿIzz al-Dīn Kay Kāwūs I by his brother, rival and successor, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kay Qubādh I. The detailed analysis of the minaret added to the Great Mosque in Sivas, along with the nearby tomb and hospital, all built during the reign of ‘Izz al- Dīn Kay Kāwūs I, suggests an increased importance of that city to the dynasty which cannot be perceived from the literary sources alone. The thesis concludes with an overview of sultanic and royal female patronage during Rūm Saljūq rule, followed by a number of avenues for further enquiry.