Manual transcription of conversational speech at the articulatory feature level
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Although much is known about how speech is produced, and research into speech production has resulted in measured articulatory data, feature systems of different kinds and numerous models, speech production knowledge is almost totally ignored in current mainstream approaches to automatic speech recognition. Representations of speech production allow simple explanations for many phenomena observed in speech which cannot be easily analyzed from either acoustic signal or phonetic transcription alone. In this article, we provide a survey of a growing body of work in which such representations are used to improve automatic speech recognition.