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The "Russian Folk-Theatre" is a study of the various dramatic genres which form a hitherto neglected part of Russia's oral litera¬ ture. It is divided into five main sections with an Introduction and extensive bibliography, It has three main aims, firstly to give a general account of the history and characteristic features of each type of theatre, secondly to present the Russian folk-theatre as a specific dramatic entity and thirdly to offer a picture of drama in evolution. The first four sections are arranged in order of dramatic complexity beginning with primitive ritual drama and ending with the relatively sophisticated "Tsar Kaximillian." After briefly introducing my subject and the background to its study in Russia I proceed in Chapter I. to discuss the emergence of dramatic forms in general and the role of the ritual in harnessing dramatic impulses. The importance of imitatory instincts and man's reactions to his physical surroundings and needs are stressed. The principles inherent in the creation of drama set forth in this chapter form the basis for the detailed examination of ritual drama in Russia which follows. The rituals are split into two main groups: Rites of Intensification dealing with the fate of the community as a whole and Rites of Passage more closely connected with the individual. Among the former two major types may be discerned, those based on agricultural processes and those based on animal husbandry. A description is given of each of the three seasonal cycles of rites revolving round an anthropomorphic figure and of the major animal masks on East Slavonic territory, the "horse" "bull" and "goat". In a somewhat different category is the bear as an animal of the hunt. Little remains of ritual origin in the Russian beargames and most of then clearly belong to a later period. However, bear-baiting, the performances of trained bears and scenes with the "bear" mask are also included here.