Iron-catalysed hydrofunctionalisation of alkenes and alkynes
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Greenhalgh, Mark David
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The iron-catalysed hydrofunctionalisation of alkenes and alkynes has been developed to give a range of functionalised products with control of regio-, chemo- and stereochemistry. Using a bench-stable iron(II) pre-catalyst, the hydrosilylation, hydroboration, hydrogermylation and hydromagnesiation of alkenes and alkynes has been achieved. Iron-catalysed hydrosilylation, hydroboration and hydrogermylation of terminal, 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted alkyl and aryl alkenes and alkynes was developed, in which the active iron catalyst was generated in situ (Scheme A1). Alkyl and vinyl silanes and pinacol boronic esters were synthesised in good to excellent yield in the presence of a range of functional groups. Catalyst loadings as low as 0.07 mol% were demonstrated, along with catalyst turn-over frequencies of up to 60 000 mol h−1. The iron-catalysed formal hydrocarboxylation of a range of styrene derivatives has been developed for the synthesis of α-aryl carboxylic acids using carbon dioxide and ethylmagnesium bromide as the stoichiometric hydride source (Scheme A2). Detailed mechanistic studies have shown this reaction proceeds by iron-catalysed hydromagnesiation to give an intermediate benzylic organomagnesium reagent. The nature of the active catalyst and reaction mechanism have been proposed.