Ship transport of CO₂ for Enhanced Oil Recovery - Literature Survey
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Transport of carbon dioxide (CO2) by ship may fulfil a key role in the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS), particularly for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the North Sea where a flexible transport system may be advantageous. Shipping of liquefied CO2 already occurs, albeit at a limited scale, to service the industrial gases market. Use of shipping to supply early-phase CO2-EOR projects may bring benefits including the flexibility to use equipment in several projects, ability to collect from existing industrial sources and moderate capital costs compared to new pipelines. A number of studies have focussed on use of shipping for CO2 transport in the context of CCS; this work package has assessed the available literature, reviewed appropriate studies in detail and summarises in this report the main points of note for CO2-EOR interests. The purpose of the work package is detailed in the scoping document, attached as Appendix 1. The key aims are to: determine the extent and scope of literature on transport of CO2 by ship; review a selection of available literature to extract and report the key findings of interest for CO2-EOR, with a focus on options for loading/offloading and comparative costs against other transport modes.