Estimating body and surface waves using virtual sources and receivers
This research is focused on the application of both new and established seismic interferometry techniques to a single area: the Altiplano in the Andes region. This area has already been widely studied in terms of its geological evolution. Nevertheless, a single accepted theory has not yet been developed to explain why the topography of the Andes incorporates such a large area of low relief at this altitude. The Altiplano is therefore an interesting zone to study. This research introduces and analyses new concepts and methodologies, such as retrieving surface and body waves between earthquakes by using interferometry. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the quality of recordings, the separation between sources, and the velocity gradient of the medium, had to be taken into account for body and surface wave retrieval. This research also analysed the retrieval of body waves by means of seismic interferometry applied to coda wave arrivals. Results show that due to the attenuation of S waves produced by the zone of partial molten material, when using S coda waves, seismic interferometry does not achieve the objective of wave retrieval. On the other hand, P coda waves gave good results. Also, the combined methodology of interferometry by cross-correlation and convolution was shown to account for the behaviour of the retrieved waves and provided an indication of how the distribution of sources affects the Green’s functions estimates for body waves in this area. Another point covered by this research was the analysis of passive recordings in order to retrieve surface and body waves. Results indicate that surface and body waves could be retrieved. However, in order to retrieve body waves, special circumstances are required, such as lateral continuity of the Moho, a relative strong Moho impedance contrast, and simplicity of the geologic structure because these factors will contribute to a strong signal like that obtained in critical reflections making interferometry results more successful.