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|Title: ||From Surfaces to Objects: Recognizing Objects Using Surface Information and Object Models|
|Authors: ||Fisher, Robert B.|
|Supervisor(s): ||Howe, Jim|
|Issue Date: ||1986|
|Publisher: ||The University of Edinburgh|
|Abstract: ||This thesis describes research on recognizing partially obscured objects using
surface information like Marr's 2D sketch ([MAR82]) and surface-based geometrical
object models. The goal of the recognition process is to produce a fully
instantiated object hypotheses, with either image evidence for each feature or
explanations for their absence, in terms of self or external occlusion.
The central point of the thesis is that using surface information should be
an important part of the image understanding process. This is because surfaces
are the features that directly link perception to the objects perceived (for
normal "camera-like" sensing) and because surfaces make explicit information
needed to understand and cope with some visual problems (e.g. obscured features).
Further, because surfaces are both the data and model primitive, detailed
recognition can be made both simpler and more complete.
Recognition input is a surface image, which represents surface orientation and
absolute depth. Segmentation criteria are proposed for forming surface patches
with constant curvature character, based on surface shape discontinuities which
become labeled segmentation- boundaries.
Partially obscured object surfaces are reconstructed using stronger surface based
constraints. Surfaces are grouped to form surface clusters, which are 3D
identity-independent solids that often correspond to model primitives. These are
used here as a context within which to select models and find all object features.
True three-dimensional properties of image boundaries, surfaces and surface
clusters are directly estimated using the surface data.
Models are invoked using a network formulation, where individual nodes
represent potential identities for image structures. The links between nodes are
defined by generic and structural relationships. They define indirect evidence relationships
for an identity. Direct evidence for the identities comes from the data
properties. A plausibility computation is defined according to the constraints inherent
in the evidence types. When a node acquires sufficient plausibility, the
model is invoked for the corresponding image structure.Objects are primarily represented using a surface-based geometrical model.
Assemblies are formed from subassemblies and surface primitives, which are
defined using surface shape and boundaries. Variable affixments between assemblies
allow flexibly connected objects.
The initial object reference frame is estimated from model-data surface relationships,
using correspondences suggested by invocation. With the reference
frame, back-facing, tangential, partially self-obscured, totally self-obscured and
fully visible image features are deduced. From these, the oriented model is used
for finding evidence for missing visible model features. IT no evidence is found,
the program attempts to find evidence to justify the features obscured by an unrelated
object. Structured objects are constructed using a hierarchical synthesis
Fully completed hypotheses are verified using both existence and identity
constraints based on surface evidence.
Each of these processes is defined by its computational constraints and are
demonstrated on two test images. These test scenes are interesting because they
contain partially and fully obscured object features, a variety of surface and solid
types and flexibly connected objects. All modeled objects were fully identified
and analyzed to the level represented in their models and were also acceptably
Portions of this work have been reported elsewhere ([FIS83], [FIS85a], [FIS85b],
[FIS86]) by the author.|
|Appears in Collections:||Informatics thesis and dissertation collection|
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